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ICIUM 2004 Posters: Access and Use Track

Evaluation of Type C Hospital Formularies in Yogyakarta
Anggriani Y, Suryawati S, Pudjaningsih D
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Do Village Revolving Funds Improve Access and Rational Use of Drugs in Laos?
Bigdeli M, Ketsouvannasane B, Shuey DA
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Promoting Drug and Therapeutics Committees in the Developing World
Green T, Holloway K.A., Chalker J.
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1
Oral presentation 2

Accessibility, Pattern of Use and Implications of Restricted Availability of Medicines for Treatment of Substance Abuse in a Tertiary Level Health Care Center in North Eastern India
Chakrabarti A, Dutta S
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Changes in Antiretroviral Therapy and in Outcomes of HIV/AIDS Patients in Taiwan before and after a New HIV/AIDS Therapy Reimbursement Scheme
Chang H
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Scoring System for the Development of the National List of Essential Drugs (NLED) in Thailand
Chongtrakul P
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Do Fixed-Dose Pills or Unit-of-Use Packaging Improve Adherence? A Systematic Review
Connor J, Rafter NJ, Rodgers A
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Effect of a Regulatory Intervention on Drug Availability in Nepal
Dangechhetri G, Kafle KK, Karkee SB, Bhuju GB, Shrestha BM, Rajbhandari V, Humagain B
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Adverse Events Associated with Turmeric Preparations: Consumer Reporting Experience
Suwankesawong W
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Empowering Stakeholders in Drug Policy Making by Research Evidence to Improve Regulations for Ethical Drug Advertisements toward Rational Drug Use
Dung PH, Nguyen Thi Kim, Chuc NTK and Nguyen Thi Minh Hieu
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Pharmacy Practices of Dispensing Doctors in Zimbabwe
Hansen E, Trap B
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Quality of Drug Advertisements Following the Deregulation of Mass Media in Indonesia
Hidayati S, Munawaroh S, Saleh-Danu S
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Impact on Prescribing Patterns of a Fee per Drug Unit versus a Fee per Drug Item
Holloway K, Karkee SB, Tamang AL, Gurung YB, Pradhan R
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Impact of a Cost Sharing Drug Supply Scheme on the Quality of Care in Public Primary Health Care Facilities in Rural Eastern Nepal
Holloway K, Gautam BR
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

ABC Analysis in Hospitals of the National Capital Territory of Delhi: Impact of Drug Policy
Khanna N, Tekur U, Bapna JS
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Improving Rational Use through Efficient Procurement. Review of the Existing Evidence Base to Guide Essential Medicine Procurement
Levison L, Laing R, Waning B, Kaplan W
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Cost as a Barrier to Access: Identifying the Component Costs of Essential Medicines
Levison L, Laing R
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Accessibility to Inhaled Corticosteroids among Adults with Chronic Asthma: An Impact of the Universal Health Care Coverage Policy
Limwattananon C, Limwattananon S, Pannarunothai S
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Rapid Penetration of Cox2 Inhibitors in the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Market: An Implication for Hospital Cost Containment Policies
Limwattananon S, Limwattananon C, Pannarunothai S
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Study of Rational Drug Use Profiles in an Non-Government Organization (NGO)-Managed Health Center versus Private Health Practitioners
Mandal S, Mandal M
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

The Practice of Dispensing Prescribers: A Threat to Appropriate Medicines Use?
Trap B, Hansen EH
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

The Role of a Comprehensive Pharmaceutical Sector Development Programme in Improving Rational Use of Drugs: The Ghana Example
Ofori-Adjei D, Gyansa-Lutterodt M, Asiama D, Dodoo A, Aboagye-Nyame F, Osafo E, Arhinful D
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Improving Economic Prescribing in a Teaching Hospital through an Educational Strategy to Promote Generic Prescribing
Suttipoom P, Anansakunwatt W, Ngamthipwatthana T, Wagner A, Ross-Degnan D
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Improving Access to Essential Medicines through Public-Private Initiatives: The Case of the Catholic Pharmaceutical Service in Ghana
Osafo E, Buckle G, Staley R, Allotey C, Oppong-Tawiah B, Bonnah S, Annan I, Eghan K
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Reducing Codeine Cough Syrup Medicine Consumption to Control Codeine Abuse in Thailand
Patcharapisarn N
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Evidence, Cost and Decision Making Criteria Used by Provincial Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees in South Africa
Pillay T, Hill SR, Walkom E
Poster presentation
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Oral Presentation 1

Drug Database and Performance Indicators for Utilization Monitoring
Pongcharoensuk P, Angsanant M, Chantrakunopars P, Phuthong P, Kongsawat S
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

A Pilot Study Examining Criteria Used to Select Drugs for Hospital, Provincial and National Formularies
Robertson J, Newby D, Pillay A, Walkom E
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Evaluating Australia's National Strategy for Quality Use of Medicines: Results of Indicator Measurements 1992-2003
Roughead L, Semple SJ
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Assessment of Local Purchase of Pharmaceuticals at Public Health Facilities
Saparyono B, Suryawati S
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees in Thai Hospitals under Health Reform
Sripairoj A, Tangcharoensathien V, Liamputtong P
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Impact of Training in Drug Supply Management (DSM) on DSM, Dispensing Practices, and Patient Knowledge and Care at Primary Health Care (PHC) Clinics
Summers R, Kruger CH
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Impact Assessment of Supervision on Medicines Management
Trap B, Todd CH, Moore H, Laing R
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Economic Analysis of Drug Expenditure in the Government Medical College Hospital, Nagpur, India
Thawani V, Turankar AV, Sontakke SD, Pimpalkhute SV, Dakhale GN, Jaiswal KS, Gharpure KJ
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Quality Assurance of Medicines under the Universal Health Coverage Program in Thailand
Tiptaradol S, Abhigantaphand Duangporn, Ungboriboonpisal Sooks
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Developing National Formularies Based on the WHO Model Formulary
Tisocki K, Laing R, Hogerzeil H, Mehta DK, Ryan RS
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Improving Performance of Drug and Therapeutics Committees in Laos
Vang C, Wahlstrom R, Tomson G, Kounvong S, Southammavong T
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Assessment of the Selection Process for the 2003 National List of Essential Drugs (NLED) of Thailand
Yoongthong W, Kunaratanapruk S, Sumpradit N, Chongtrakul P
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Educational Intervention to Improve Prescribing Habits of Pediatricians in Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Ziganshina L, Pikuza OI, Magsumova DR, Galyautdinova AYu
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Building the National Drug Policy on Evidence: Assessing Implementation in Lao PDR
Paphassarang C, Wahlström R, Phoummalaysith B, Boupha B, Tomson G
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Impact of the Tamil Nadu Medical Services Corporation on Drug Prescribing in Primary Health Care
Murali R, Sathyanarayanan D, Rajkumar C, Senthil Kumar.R, Usha Titus
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1
Oral presentation 2

Discrepancies between International and National Lists of Essential Reproductive Health Medicines
Jayasekar S, Gray R, Hogerzeil H V, Jayasekar S, Usher-Patel M
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Improving Access and Use of Medicines through Private Sector Initiatives: A Case for an Essential Medicines Franchise in Ghana.
Eghan K, Marsden A., Staley R, Idun J, Bruce E
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Quasi-Experimental Study Designs in Evaluating Medicine Use Interventions
Matowe L, Ramsay C
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Establishing Effective Hospital Drug and Therapeutics Committees: A Situational Analysis
Ndhlovu C, Simoyi T
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets: Improving Access to Quality Drugs and Services in Rural and Peri-Urban Areas with Few or No Pharmacies
Sigonda-Ndomondo M, Heltzer N, Clark M, Mbwasi R, Shirima R
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Effect of an Educational Intervention on the Drug Purchasing Practices of Local Government Officials in a Decentralized Setting: Quasi-Experimental Study with Control
Juban N, Sia IC, Torres CE
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Pharmacists’ Perceptions of the Development of the Herbal Medicines Market in Iran
Asghari G
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

A Longitudinal Policy Analysis of the Impact on Prescribing Patterns and Medication Cost of a Generic Dispensing Policy in a Teaching Hospital in Thailand
Anansakunwatt W, Suttipoom P, Wagner A
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1
Oral presentation 2

The WHO/HAI Drug Promotion Database
Herxheimer A, Lexchin J
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Impact of an NGO-Supported Supervisory Program on Quality of Care in Private Drug Shops in Rural East Nepal
Holloway K, Gautam BR
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Development of Essential Drugs Lists in Four Central Asian Republics (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan): Comparison and Discrepancies
Jafarov A, Laing R
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

The Effects of Managerial Intervention on Drug Prescribing Patterns at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital
Limpanathikul W, Wangsaturaka D, Nantawan P, Itthipanichapong C
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Treating AIDS: Dilemmas of Unequal Access in Uganda
Whyte S, Whyte MA, Meinert L, Kyaddondo B
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Experiences in South Africa with the Introduction of Pharmaceutical Pricing Legislation
Zokufa H, Pillay T
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Prequalification of HIV/AIDS Products and Manufacturers as Part of the Procurement, Quality, and Sourcing Project: Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs of Acceptable Quality
Van Zyl A, Gross O, Rägo L, Tasevska I
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Differential Pricing of Pharmaceuticals: What About the Rest of the World?
Lang D, Hill S
Poster presentation
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Overview of Key Medicines Issues and Challenges, Measuring Use of Medicines: How Have We Progressed in the Last Decade
Holloway K, Ivanovska V
Abstract
Oral Presentation 1

Does Drug Use Evaluation (DUE) Required by National Policy Improve Use of Medicines?
Akaleephan C, Sittitanyakit B, Muenpa R
Poster presentation
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Oral Presentation 1

Attitude and Perceptions of Stakeholders on Decentralization of Health Services in Uganda: The Case of Lira and Apac Districts
Anokbonggo W, Ogwal-Okeng J W, Ross-Degnan D
Poster presentation
Abstract

Interventions in the Kosovo Pharmaceutical Sector: Success or Failure?
Arifaj-Blumi D
Poster presentation
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Indicators for Medicines Information Services in Developing Countries
Ball D, Tagwireyi D
Poster presentation
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Relevance of Undertaking Expenditure Reviews to Inform Decision Making
Beaver C
Poster presentation
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Impact of Drug Policy on Improving Access to Medicines in Delhi
Bhoi N, Roy Chaudhury R, Bapna JS, Tekur U, Khanna N
Poster presentation
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Provida’s Impact on Improving Access to and Use of Essential Drugs in Poor Communities in Peru
Castro J, Solari J
Poster presentation
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Impact of Implementation of the Delhi Drug Policy on Availability, Accessibility, Quality of Drugs and Prescribing Patterns (1995-2002)
Roy Chaudhury R, Parameswar R, Gupta U, Sharma S, Tekur U, Bapna JS
Abstract

Access to Medicine in Iran
Cheraghali M
Poster presentation
Abstract

Rational Use and Improved Access to Opioid Analgesics -- Has The Time Come?
Foster S
Abstract

Drug Pricing and Availability in Karaganda, Kazakhstan
Gulaev A, Laing R, Muratov S, Lobyntsev D, Ermekbaeva B, Nurgozhin T, Khe N
Abstract

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of the Essential Medicines List of Delhi State: A Time Series Analysis
Gupta U, Sharma S, Baishya RN, Bapna JS, Chaudhury RR
Poster presentation
Abstract

Monitoring the Pharmaceutical Sector in the Developing World: The Ghana Example
Gyansa-Lutterodt M, Arhinful D, Addo-Atuah J, Andrews E, Doddo A, Asiamah D, Osei I, Ofori-Adjei D
Poster presentation
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A Simple Method for Assessing Irrational Prescribing and Prioritizing Prescribing Problems for Intervention: A Pilot Study in Uganda
Hansen E, Trap B, Anfinnsen M
Poster presentation
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Project on Enhancement of Research Capacity in Nepal: Interventions in Primary Health Care
Hansen E, Kafle KK, Karkee SB, Onta SR, Subba S, Sthapit S
Poster presentation
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Impact of the Essential Drugs Programme at the Primary Health Care Level in South Africa
Hela M, Zeeman H, Auton MS, Sallet J-P, Summers R, Eagles P
Poster presentation
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Drug Information in Private Pharmacies in Lao PDR
Houamboun K, Atxayavong T, Phimmasone B, Simmavong S, Sinhsayachack K, Stålsby Lundborg C, Wahlström R
Poster presentation
Abstract

E-Learning of Public Health Pharmacology
Huss R, Summers R, Pries K
Poster presentation
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WHO Prescribing Indicators (1991–1995): Trends and Perspectives in an Outpatient Health Care Facility in Benin City, Nigeria
Isah A, Isah EC, Aghomo OE
Poster presentation
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Drug Price Survey along with the WHO/HAI Core List
Igarashi A, Tsutani K
Poster presentation
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Availability of Drugs: What Does it Mean in Ugandan Primary Care?
Jitta J, Whyte SR, Nshakira N
Poster presentation
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An Analytical Framework for Identifying "Gaps" in Pharmaceutical Research and Development
Kaplan W, Laing RL
Abstract

Paying for Pharmaceutical Regulation in Developing Countries
Kaplan W, Laing RL
Poster presentation
Abstract

The Influence of Value Added Tax (VAT) Elimination on Drug Access
Karymbaeva S
Poster presentation
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Multi-Country Participatory Evaluation of the Implementation of the WHO Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion: Networking Tools for Monitoring and Evaluation
Kiatying-Angsulee N, Pham Huy Dung, Sri Hidayati, Khotsay K
Abstract

Developing Tools for Monitoring and Evaluating Unethical Drug Promotion in Thailand
Kiatying-Angsulee N, Chaisumritchoke S, Chantapasa K, Amrumpai Y
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Impact of the National Healthcare Reform on Prescribing Patterns of Promotional Targeted Drugs among Thai Physicians
Layton MR, Chadbunchachai S, Thinkhamrop B, Tangcharoensathien V
Poster presentation
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Could the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines Do More for the Rational and Safe Use of Injections?
Logez S, Hutin Y, Holloway K, Robin G, Hogerzeil H
Poster presentation
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Impact of a National Medicine Policy on Injection Safety and Rational Use of Injections, Burkina Faso 1995-2000
Logez S, Hutin Y, Somda P, Thuault J, Holloway K
Poster presentation
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Impact of a Revolving Drug Fund on Availability of Essential Medicines in Church Health Institutions in Tanzania
Macatta-Yambi M
Abstract

Interactive Group Discussion: An Intervention to Reduce the Overuse of Injections at Public Health Care Facilities in Cambodia
Men C
Poster presentation
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Drug Prescribing Habits in Primary Health Care Facilities and Availability of Drugs in Private and State Pharmacies in the Republic of Serbia
Moravcevic N, Chiperi A
Poster presentation
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Managing the Dynamics of Drug Supply, Demand, and Health Service Utilization: A New Rapid Assessment Tool for Forecasting Drug Requirements and Resource Planning (Part 1).
Nazerali H, Mohamed K, Oteba M, Mwoga J
Poster presentation
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Monitoring and Assessing a Pharmaceutical Situation: A Comparison of Two Indicator-Based WHO Instruments
Nurita P, Saparyono, B., Suryawati, S
Poster presentation
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Impact of Decentralisation on Health Services in Uganda: A Look at Facility Utilisation, Prescribing, and Availability of Essential Drugs
Ogwal-Okeng J, Anokbonggo WW, Obua C, Ross-Degnan D, Aupont O
Poster presentation
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The Relationship between Drug Supply and Prescribing Patterns in District Hospitals in Uganda
Ogwal-Okeng J, Obua C, Anokbonggo W
Poster presentation
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Assessing Drug Use Practices at Free Medical Camps in Kenya - II
Orwa J, Ombogo J, Ojoo MA, Oluka M, Ogaja EMA, Wanyanga WO
Poster presentation
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How Aggressive Recruitment and Training of Pharmacists and Pharmacists’ Assistants is are being Utilized to Improve Management of Drug Supplies
Peteni L, Qolohle SZ
Poster presentation
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Operational Guide to Improve Drug Quality in Low-Income Countries
Phanouvong S, Blum LB, Wondemagegnehu E, Dicken T, Vrakking H, Ssali P, Rahman E, Trin VQ, Smine A, Mahlangu G, Bwire R, Tran D
Abstract

Cost Impact of Using Specific Cyclooxygenase II Inhibitors in Orthopedic Outpatients at Lerdsin Hospital
Phosri J, Kulsomboon V, Kiatying-Angsulee N
Poster presentation
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Self-Monitoring Instrument to Improve the Efficiency of Hospital Drug Management
Pudjaningsih D, Santoso B
Poster presentation
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Access and Accessibility to Disease Control Tools: A Literature Review
Radyowijati A, Haak H
Poster presentation
Abstract

Prescribing Practices in Village Health Stations in Rural China
Ran R, Tomson G
Abstract

“Snap-Lock” Polyethylene Mini Bags for Dispensing Drugs in Sri Lanka
Senarathna L, Samaranayake A, Kumarage S, Senevirathna A, Kappagoda S.
Poster presentation
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Progress of Rational Use of Drugs Program in Karnataka, India
Srinivas C, Sudarshan HC, Bilimagga RS
Poster presentation
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Perspectives in Postmarket Drug Surveillance: A Review of Adverse Drug Event Reporting Processes
Subramaniam V, Panasethaned K, Quinn J
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Decentralization as a Challenge to Improving Drug Management: an Experience from Sleman, Indonesia
Sunartono H
Poster presentation
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Producing a Joint WHO/ISDB Practical Guide to Starting or Developing an Independent Drug Bulletin
Tarr A
Abstract

Review of Public Sector Indicator Studies in Zimbabwe—Who is Paying Attention?
Tisocki K, Ndhlovu CE, Simoyi T, Wilson E, Goredema W
Poster presentation
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The Impact on Cost of Care and Use of Medicines of Expanded Drug Coverage via a Positive List in the Philippines
Valera M, Acuin L, Soria F, Bautista C, Lavina SM
Abstract

Decision Makers and Research in the Laos Pharmaceutical Sector
Wahlström R, Paphassarang C, Jönsson K, Houamboun K, Akkhavong K, Tomson G
Poster presentation
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Does Registration of Several Generics Translate into More and Cheaper Drugs for the Patient?
Fernandopulle B, Senarathna SMDKG
Poster presentation
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Accessibility of Essential Drugs in Remote Areas of Lao PDR
Sengaloundeth S, Phachomphonh B, Xayasane S, Phanouvong V, Thammakhanh S, Paphassarang C, Syhakhang L, Eriksson B, Stålsby Lundborg C, Freudenthal S, Tomson G, Wahlström R
Poster presentation
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The Inappropriate Sale of Medication for Paediatric Use in Siem Reap Province, Cambodia
Sothearith T, Guhadasan R, Romey E
Poster presentation
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Evaluation of the Therapeutic Value of Drugs Registered in Peru in 1996
Cruzado Ubillús R
Poster presentation
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Achieving the Ideal: Equity Pricing for Essential Medicines
Moon S, 't Hoen E, Macé C, Perez-Casas C
Abstract

The Challenge of Integrating an RDU Training Model into the Reality of a Health System Context: A Survey and Coordination Effort in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Wiedenmayer K, Tanner M, Mtasiwa D
Poster presentation
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Innovative Learning Methods for Rational Drug Prescribing
Itthipanichpong C, Chompootaweep S, Chongtrakul P, Nantawan P, Thamaree S
Poster presentation
Abstract

Impact of Currency Crisis on Availability, Affordability, and Use of Medicines in Indonesia: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study
Suryawati S
Poster presentation
Abstract

Drug and Therapeutics Committees in Moldova
Cebotarenco N, Veltman K, Tchebotarenco S, Shetinina S
Abstract

Drug Use Determinants and Practices in Amman: A Qualitative Study
Qato D
Poster presentation
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The Impact of Regulatory Interventions on Pharmaceutical Access and Quality: What Is the Evidence and Where Are the Gaps in Our Knowledge?
Kaplan W, Laing RL, Waning B, Levison L
Poster presentation
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Is Local Production of Pharmaceuticals a Way to Improve Pharmaceutical Access in Developing and Transitional Countries? Setting a Research Agenda
Kaplan W, Laing RL, Foster S, Waning B, Levison L
Abstract

A Pilot Intervention to Improve Injection Practices in the Informal Private Sector in Karachi, Pakistan
Agboatwalla M, Hutin Y, Luby S , Mussarrat A
Poster presentation
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Technology Appraisal Programme of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence: A Review by WHO
de Joncheere K, Hill S, Garattini S , van Loenhout J, O`Brien B
Poster presentation
Abstract

The WHO Essential Medicines Library
Hogerzeil H, Gray R, Murray E
Poster presentation
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Assessing the Effect of Two Policy Interventions on Treatment Costs and Drug Use Patterns in a Private Self Funding Healthcare Institution in Nairobi: The Case of Generic Prescribing and Generic Substitution
Ojoo M, Waning B, Maina M
Poster presentation
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Access to Essential Medicines as Part of the Fulfillment of the Right to Health
Hogerzeil H, Vidal C
Poster presentation
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New Cost Sensitivity Measures to Assess the Impact of User Fees on Physicians' Treatment Choices
Huttin C, Noyce P, Atella V, Hedvall MB, Weise M, Schafheutl
Abstract

Use of Automated Claims Data in the Kyrgyzstan Outpatient Drug Benefit Program to Evaluate Medicine Pricing Trends Plus Access and Equity among Beneficiaries
Ibraimova A, Cashin C, Waning B
Abstract

Kyrgyzstan Outpatient Drug (OPD) Benefit Program: Use Of Automated Claims Data to Evaluate the Impact of the OPD Benefit Program on Rational Drug Prescribing by Physicians and Generic Drug Use by Patients
Kadyrova N, Waning B, Cashin C
Abstract

Outcomes of Introducing the Essential Drugs Concept in Armenia
Kazaryan I, Melikyan M, Sevikyan A, Vardanyan L
Poster presentation
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Impact of Availability and Quality of Pharmaceutical Reference Information on Prescribing Habits and Pharmaceutical Expenditure
Horst H
Poster presentation
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Impact of Implementation of Clinical Protocols on Rational Drug Use in the Kyrgyz Republic
Toktobaeva B, Karymbaeva, ST
Poster presentation
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Using WHO Indicators to Monitor the Implementation of National Drug Policy: Relationship between Country Characteristics and Background, Structure, Process, and Outcome Indicators
Sjabana D
Poster presentation
Abstract

Improving Access to Essential Medicines in Kenya: The Nyamira District Revolving Drug Fund Experience:
Ominde-Ogaja E, Boussery G, Otieno G
Poster presentation
Abstract

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